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专访丨高明华:国企混改的关键是改革公司治理

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年10月19日 06:32:47
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(——访)(北)(京)(师)(范)(大)(学)(公)(司)(治)(理)(与)(企)(业)(发)(展)(研)(究)(中)(心)(主)(任)(高)(明)(华)(
资)(料)(图)(片)(
  ■中)(国)(经)(济)(时)(报)(记)(者)(周)(子)(勋)(
  今)(年)(以)(来)(,国)(企)(改)(革)(的)(关)(注)(度)(明)(显)(提)(高)(,尤)(其)(是)(近)(期)(中)(国)(联)(合)(网)(络)(通)(信)(集)(团)(有)(限)(公)(司)((简)(称)(“中)(国)(联)(通)(”)通)(过)(非)(公)(开)(发)(行)(方)(式)(将)(股)(权)(释)(放)(给)(其)(他)(国)(有)(和)(非)(国)(有)(资)(本)(,引)(入)(民)(营)(战)(略)(投)(资)(者)(BATJ(腾)(讯)(、百)(度)(、阿)(里)(巴)(巴)(、京)(东)()等)(互)(联)(网)(巨)(头)(,其)(混)(改)(方)(案)(令)(人)(关)(注)(。
  下)(一)(步)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(走)(向)(如)(何)(?中)(国)(联)(通)(混)(改)(给)(后)(期)(国)(企)(改)(革)(有)(何)(启)(示)(?长)(期)(深)(入)(研)(究)(国)(企)(改)(革)(与)(公)(司)(治)(理)(的)(北)(京)(师)(范)(大)(学)(公)(司)(治)(理)(与)(企)(业)(发)(展)(研)(究)(中)(心)(主)(任)(高)(明)(华)(教)(授)(在)(接)(受)(中)(国)(经)(济)(时)(报)(记)(者)(采)(访)(时)(表)(示)(,国)(企)(混)(改)(要)(改)(的)(不)(是)(简)(单)(的)(股)(权)(比)(例)(,而)(是)(公)(司)(治)(理)(,国)(企)(混)(改)(如)(果)(不)(与)(公)(司)(治)(理)(结)(合)(起)(来)(,就)(不)(算)(成)(功)(,也)(不)(可)(能)(成)(功)(。
  国)(资)(交)(易)(程)(序)(须)(做)(出)(符)(合)(市)(场)(规)(律)(的)(修)(正)(
  高)(明)(华)(表)(示)(,国)(企)(混)(改)(尽)(管)(政)(府)(在)(不)(断)(推)(动)(,但)(落)(实)(情)(况)(并)(不)(尽)(如)(人)(意)(。有)(的)(即)(使)(形)(式)(上)(混)(改)(了)(,也)(建)(立)(了)(相)(应)(的)(公)(司)(治)(理)(结)(构)(,但)(更)(重)(要)(的)(公)(司)(治)(理)(机)(制)(没)(有)(建)(立)(,存)(在)(着)(相)(当)(多)(的)(形)(似)(而)(实)(不)(至)(的)(问)(题)(。很)(多)(企)(业)(的)(混)(改)(,其)(形)(式)(意)(义)(大)(于)(实)(质)(意)(义)(。
  就)(从)(“管)(企)(业)(”变)(成)(“管)(资)(本)(”来)(说)(,同)(样)(进)(展)(不)(理)(想)(。一)(是)(监)(管)(机)(构)(不)(敢)(放)(权)(,因)(为)(放)(了)(权)(,他)(们)(就)(要)(承)(担)(可)(能)(带)(来)(国)(资)(流)(失)(的)(责)(任)(。二)(是)(国)(企)(负)(责)(人)(尽)(管)(渴)(望)(监)(管)(机)(构)(放)(权)(,但)(在)(目)(前)(的)(国)(资)(交)(易)(程)(序)(下)(,他)(们)(中)(很)(多)(人)(又)(不)(敢)(接)(受)(放)(权)(,因)(为)(接)(受)(了)(放)(权)(,同)(样)(也)(要)(承)(担)(可)(能)(带)(来)(的)(国)(资)(流)(失)(的)(责)(任)(。目)(前)(,国)(资)(交)(易)(程)(序)(中)(关)(于)(90%的)(“红)(线)(”在)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(已)(成)(为)(国)(企)(改)(革)(的)(障)(碍)(,因)(为)(这)(个)(90%不)(符)(合)(市)(场)(规)(则)(,它)(所)(赖)(以)(存)(在)(的)(假)(设)(,即)(对)(于)(上)(市)(公)(司)(,二)(级)(市)(场)(价)(格)(要)(与)(公)(司)(业)(绩)(相)(吻)(合)(,不)(存)(在)(外)(部)(因)(素)(和)(操)(纵)(;对)(于)(非)(上)(市)(公)(司)(,资)(产)(评)(估)(机)(构)(的)(评)(估)(价)(是)(客)(观)(的)(,不)(存)(在)(操)(纵)(和)(串)(联)(,就)(目)(前)(的)(市)(场)(环)(境)(来)(说)(,都)(难)(以)(满)(足)(。因)(此)(,国)(资)(交)(易)(程)(序)(必)(须)(做)(出)(符)(合)(市)(场)(规)(律)(的)(修)(正)(。
  国)(企)(混)(改)(要)(改)(的)(是)(公)(司)(治)(理)(
  高)(明)(华)(表)(示)(,到)(目)(前)(为)(止)(,中)(国)(联)(通)(混)(改)(还)(只)(是)(具)(有)(“开)(局)(”意)(义)(,这)(主)(要)(表)(现)(在)(国)(资)(单)(一)(股)(东)((联)(通)(集)(团)()持)(股)(比)(例)(的)(下)(降)(以)(及)(多)(家)(有)(实)(力)(民)(企)(的)(进)(入)(方)(面)(。但)(是)(否)(具)(有)(突)(破)(性)(意)(义)(,能)(否)(成)(为)(其)(他)(国)(企)(改)(革)(的)(范)(本)(,则)(需)(要)(看)(中)(国)(联)(通)(下)(一)(步)(改)(革)(中)(的)(具)(体)(措)(施)(。从)(中)(国)(联)(通)(公)(布)(的)(方)(案)(中)(的)(国)(资)(和)(民)(资)(的)(基)(本)(格)(局)(以)(及)(公)(司)(治)(理)(的)(普)(遍)(现)(状)(看)(,混)(改)(的)(深)(入)(程)(度)(以)(及)(最)(终)(的)(效)(果)(,还)(须)(进)(一)(步)(观)(察)(。
  国)(企)(混)(改)(关)(键)(要)(改)(什)(么)(?高)(明)(华)(直)(言)(不)(讳)(地)(指)(出)(,国)(企)(混)(改)(要)(改)(的)(不)(是)(简)(单)(的)(股)(权)(比)(例)(,而)(是)(公)(司)(治)(理)(,国)(企)(混)(改)(如)(果)(不)(与)(公)(司)(治)(理)(结)(合)(起)(来)(,就)(不)(算)(成)(功)(,也)(不)(可)(能)(成)(功)(。
  高)(明)(华)(认)(为)(,就)(中)(国)(联)(通)(混)(改)(,必)(须)(回)(答)(四)(个)(问)(题)(:一)(是)(国)(有)(大)(股)(东)(持)(股)(比)(例)(是)(否)(实)(质)(性)(降)(低)(?二)(是)(董)(事)(会)(中)(的)(同)(股)(同)(权)(和)(民)(资)(话)(语)(权)(能)(否)(实)(质)(性)(落)(实)(?三)(是)(公)(司)(高)(管)((职)(业)(经)(理)(人)()能)(否)(实)(质)(性)(从)(市)(场)(上)(选)(聘)(?四)(是)(公)(司)(高)(管)(薪)(酬)(能)(否)(实)(质)(性)(实)(现)(市)(场)(化)(?
  首)(先)(,本)(次)(中)(国)(联)(通)(混)(改)(,共)(有)(10余)(家)(社)(会)(资)(本)(入)(局)(,加)(上)(员)(工)(持)(股)(计)(划)(,最)(终)(中)(国)(联)(通)(持)(股)(从)(之)(前)(的)(67.3%降)(到)(36.67%。但)(从)(国)(有)(控)(股)(的)(基)(本)(面)(看)(,则)(没)(有)(实)(质)(性)(变)(化)(,即)(原)(先)(联)(通)(集)(团)(持)(有)(的)(股)(份)(,通)(过)(定)(增)(和)(转)(股)(形)(式)(,主)(要)(转)(给)(了)(中)(国)(人)(寿)(和)(中)(国)(诚)(通)(旗)(下)(的)(国)(企)(结)(构)(调)(整)(基)(金)(,三)(者)(合)(计)(持)(股)(比)(例)(达)(到)(53%,这)(个)(比)(例)(依)(然)(是)(出)(于)(国)(有)(控)(制)(甚)(至)(绝)(对)(控)(制)(的)(考)(虑)(。
  其)(次)(,中)(国)(联)(通)(混)(改)(方)(案)(对)(于)(“同)(股)(同)(权)(”有)(着)(明)(确)(的)(表)(述)(,即)(“坚)(持)(同)(股)(同)(权)(,依)(法)(保)(护)(各)(类)(股)(东)(产)(权)(,让)(参)(与)(进)(来)(的)(国)(有)(资)(本)(和)(非)(国)(有)(资)(本)(有)(话)(语)(权)(,按)(照)(章)(程)(依)(法)(行)(使)(决)(策)(权)(。”其)(实)(,同)(股)(同)(权)(在)(形)(式)(上)(非)(常)(容)(易)(实)(现)(,但)(要)(真)(正)(实)(现)(却)(并)(非)(易)(事)(。同)(股)(同)(权)(,体)(现)(在)(董)(事)(会)(席)(位)(安)(排)(上)(,就)(是)(按)(照)(股)(权)(来)(分)(配)(,这)(看)(起)(来)(很)(公)(平)(,但)(中)(小)(股)(东)(的)(决)(策)(权)(或)(意)(见)(能)(不)(能)(得)(到)(采)(纳)(,在)(中)(国)(目)(前)(不)(够)(成)(熟)(的)(资)(本)(市)(场)(以)(及)(不)(够)(完)(善)(的)(法)(律)(环)(境)(下)(,还)(不)(太)(容)(易)(实)(现)(。
  第)(三)(,联)(通)(混)(改)(方)(案)(提)(到)(,要)(“探)(索)(经)(理)(层)(市)(场)(化)(选)(聘)(机)(制)(和)(市)(场)(化)(管)(理)(机)(制)(”。这)(看)(起)(来)(很)(美)(好)(,但)(能)(否)(实)(现)(,还)(需)(要)(观)(察)(。如)(果)(本)(次)(联)(通)(混)(改)(中)(,社)(会)(资)(本)(方)(能)(够)(推)(荐)(一)(个)(有)(能)(力)(而)(又)(忠)(诚)(的)(总)(经)(理)(人)(选)(,董)(事)(会)(能)(够)(接)(受)(,国)(有)(大)(股)(东)(也)(能)(接)(受)(,那)(就)(是)(很)(大)(的)(突)(破)(。但)(到)(目)(前)(为)(止)(,国)(企)(的)(高)(管)(选)(择)(中)(,这)(个)(“局)(”仍)(没)(有)(破)(,只)(是)(在)(一)(些)(副)(职)(上)(会)(通)(过)(社)(会)(化)(选)(聘)(,核)(心)(高)(管)(完)(全)(放)(开)(由)(市)(场)(选)(聘)(基)(本)(上)(不)(存)(在)(。
  第)(四)(,市)(场)(化)(选)(择)(企)(业)(家)(很)(重)(要)(,但)(要)(使)(其)(发)(挥)(作)(用)(,还)(必)(须)(配)(以)(市)(场)(化)(的)(薪)(酬)(激)(励)(机)(制)(。激)(励)(与)(约)(束)(是)(对)(称)(的)(,对)(于)(企)(业)(家)(,一)(方)(面)(要)(建)(立)(责)(任)(机)(制)(,要)(使)(责)(任)(者)(“犯)(错)(”(包)(括)(违)(法)(、违)(规)(、决)(策)(错)(误)(和)(失)(误)()被)(惩)(罚)(的)(力)(度)(足)(够)(大)(,同)(时)(要)(能)(够)(把)(责)(任)(明)(确)(到)(个)(人)(,而)(不)(能)(总)(讲)(集)(体)(责)(任)(,因)(为)(集)(体)(责)(任)(往)(往)(意)(味)(着)(无)(人)(承)(担)(责)(任)(;另)(一)(方)(面)(,要)(有)(足)(够)(的)(激)(励)(力)(度)(,要)(使)(当)(事)(者)(做)(不)(好)(的)(损)(失)(很)(大)(,而)(做)(好)(的)(收)(益)(很)(大)(。国)(际)(上)(很)(多)(知)(名)(公)(司)(的)(CEO,年)(薪)(都)(在)(数)(千)(万)(美)(元)(的)(级)(别)(,因)(为)(杰)(出)(的)(企)(业)(家)(为)(公)(司)(创)(造)(的)(价)(值)(远)(远)(高)(于)(公)(司)(给)(予)(的)(薪)(酬)(。
  公)(司)(治)(理)(更)(加)(全)(球)(化)(和)(趋)(同)(化)(
  近)(期)(,国)(家)(正)(推)(出)(多)(项)(政)(策)(鼓)(励)(外)(资)(参)(与)(国)(有)(企)(业)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(改)(革)(。对)(此)(,高)(明)(华)(表)(示)(,外)(资)(参)(与)(国)(企)(混)(改)(需)(要)(鼓)(励)(和)(支)(持)(。但)(是)(,正)(如)(上)(面)(所)(说)(,混)(改)(的)(关)(键)(是)(改)(公)(司)(治)(理)(,而)(外)(资)(尤)(其)(是)(英)(美)(发)(达)(国)(家)(的)(资)(本)(对)(公)(司)(治)(理)(的)(要)(求)(远)(大)(于)(中)(国)(,但)(中)(国)(目)(前)(的)(公)(司)(治)(理)(与)(发)(达)(国)(家)(的)(差)(距)(还)(很)(大)(,尤)(其)(是)(我)(们)(的)(公)(司)(治)(理)(文)(化)(和)(发)(达)(国)(家)(有)(很)(多)(不)(同)(。
  公)(司)(治)(理)(对)(中)(国)(来)(说)(是)(舶)(来)(品)(,引)(入)(后)(出)(现)(了)(很)(多)(变)(异)(。尽)(管)(需)(要)(结)(合)(中)(国)(国)(情)(,建)(立)(适)(合)(中)(国)(实)(际)(的)(公)(司)(治)(理)(模)(式)(,但)(作)(为)(市)(场)(经)(济)(发)(展)(的)(优)(秀)(成)(果)(,公)(司)(治)(理)(的)(共)(性)(远)(大)(于)(不)(同)(。而)(且)(,自)(上)(个)(世)(纪)(80年)(代)(末)(90年)(代)(初)(开)(始)(的)(全)(球)(公)(司)(治)(理)(浪)(潮)(表)(明)(,全)(球)(公)(司)(治)(理)(已)(出)(现)(趋)(同)(趋)(势)(。
  《G20/OECD公)(司)(治)(理)(准)(则)(》就)(证)(明)(了)(这)(一)(点)(。该)(准)(则)(第)(一)(版)(出)(台)(于)(1998年)(,当)(时)(名)(称)(叫)(做)(《OECD公)(司)(治)(理)(准)(则)(》,2004年)(出)(台)(第)(二)(版)(,内)(容)(有)(修)(改)(,名)(称)(未)(变)(;2015年)(出)(台)(第)(三)(版)(,不)(仅)(内)(容)(进)(行)(了)(修)(改)(,更)(重)(要)(的)(是)(名)(称)(改)(变)(了)(,改)(为)(《G20/OECD公)(司)(治)(理)(准)(则)(》。这)(意)(味)(着)(公)(司)(治)(理)(更)(加)(全)(球)(化)(和)(趋)(同)(化)(,而)(且)(,还)(提)(出)(要)(加)(强)(对)(参)(与)(国)(家)(落)(实)(该)(准)(则)(的)(评)(估)(。中)(国)(作)(为)(G20国)(家)(,作)(为)(负)(责)(任)(的)(大)(国)(,就)(不)(能)(不)(接)(受)(这)(个)(准)(则)(,就)(不)(能)(不)(接)(受)(未)(来)(的)(评)(估)(。外)(资)(参)(与)(国)(企)(混)(改)(,他)(们)(肯)(定)(希)(望)(国)(企)(尊)(重)(公)(司)(治)(理)(的)(基)(本)(规)(范)(,包)(括)(《G20/OECD公)(司)(治)(理)(准)(则)(》,而)(不)(会)(完)(全)(接)(受)(国)(企)(一)(些)(与)(公)(司)(治)(理)(基)(本)(规)(范)(不)(吻)(合)(的)(做)(法)(。这)(点)(,在)(国)(企)(混)(改)(中)(要)(特)(别)(注)(意)(。否)(则)(,外)(资)(参)(与)(国)(企)(混)(改)(就)(只)(能)(停)(留)(在)(政)(策)(层)(面)(上)(,而)(难)(以)(有)(实)(质)(性)(进)(展)(。
  未)(来)(国)(企)(改)(革)(的)(方)(向)(有)(两)(个)(方)(面)(
  高)(明)(华)(认)(为)(,未)(来)(国)(企)(改)(革)(的)(方)(向)(有)(两)(个)(方)(面)(。一)(是)(在)(改)(革)(目)(标)(上)(,要)(把)(追)(求)(国)(资)(增)(值)(的)(最)(大)(化)(改)(变)(为)(追)(求)(国)(民)(福)(利)(的)(最)(大)(化)(,只)(要)(有)(利)(于)(增)(进)(国)(民)(福)(利)(,国)(企)(改)(革)(就)(是)(成)(功)(的)(,因)(为)(国)(资)(增)(值)(只)(是)(增)(进)(国)(民)(福)(利)(的)(手)(段)(。二)(是)(建)(立)(规)(范)(的)(公)(司)(治)(理)(机)(制)(,而)(不)(是)(仅)(仅)(停)(留)(在)(建)(立)(公)(司)(治)(理)(结)(构)(上)(。建)(立)(公)(司)(治)(理)(结)(构)(容)(易)(,但)(使)(其)(发)(挥)(作)(用)(则)(难)(得)(多)(,这)(需)(要)(公)(司)(治)(理)(机)(制)(的)(同)(步)(推)(进)(。只)(有)(这)(样)(,才)(能)(走)(出)(目)(前)(公)(司)(治)(理)(形)(似)(而)(实)(不)(至)(,以)(及)(国)(企)(混)(改)(进)(展)(缓)(慢)(的)(困)(局)(。
  主)(编)(丨)(毛)(晶)(慧)(编)(辑)(丨)(蒋)(帅)(
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